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Map of India

India is divided into three geographic regions: the Himalayan region, the Gangetic Plain, and the plateau region.

  • Climate: India's climate depends on the location and the time of year because of its larg size. The north is generally cooler, and in June the south-west monsoons begin, bringing heavy rain to the west coast. Between October and December, the same monsoons happen on the east coast.
  • Terrain: India has upland plains in the south, flat to rolling plains along the Ganges in the east, deserts in the west, and the Himalayan Mountains in the north.
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The Himalayn Mountains

  • Close to one billion people live in India.
  • Fourteen official languages.
  • Seven major religions and six minor religions - 80% of the population practices Hinduism, 10% practice Islam, and 5% are Sikhs and Christians.
  • Six main ethnic groups.
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Symbol of Hinduism

Natural Resources:
  • Coal, iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromate, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, and arable land.
  • The Ganges, Indus, and Brahmaputra rivers - they were used to easily transport products and materials through the Himalayan Mountains. Land near the rivers was also very fertile and easy to grow crops in.
  • India has the Bay of Bengal to the east, the Arabian Sea to the west, and the Indian Ocean to the south which can be used to transport goods and run factories.
  • India was called Britain's "jewel in the crown" because of all the potential it held to be a good market.

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Iron Ore

Agricultural or Manufactured Products:
  • Rubber
  • Textiles
  • Tea, indigo, coffee, cotton, and jute
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An Indian textile

Why was India colonized?
India was colonized because it had many strengths and weakness that the British could take advantage of. India wasn't a united country. The British used that opportunity to have the kings go against each other. By doing this, Great Britain gained their land, wealth, and power. India also had a great location. It is located near big countries, such as China and Pakistan. India was able to easily trade with other countries because of the railway that the British built through the country. The country is also surrounded by the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea, and the Bay of Bengal, and it has three major rivers running through it, which made waterway transportation easy. India had many natural resources that the British could use to run factories and produce goods, and several easy ways to transport goods.

Positive Effects of Imperialism on the European Powers and India:
  • India became more valuable with the building of railroads.
  • The world's third largest railroad network was built.
  • The railroad brought unity to the places in India that were connected by it, and allowed them to adopt a modern economy.
  • India became modernized with the development of roads, telephone and telegraph lines, dams, bridges, and irrigation canals.
  • Sanitation, public health, and education was improved.
  • British troops got rid of bandits in central India, so there was no more local warfare between rulers.

Negative Effects of Imperialism on the European Powers and India:
  • Great Britain held a lot of political and economic power in India.
  • The British restriced the Indian economy from running by itself.
  • Indians couldn't compete with British goods. India's textile industry was almost ruined by Britain's textiles because Britain's cheap goods weakened local producers.
  • The weight put on cash crops left little for the people of India to use for themselves.